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Sergeant Clutch Discount Transmission & Auto Repair Shop

6557 Walzem Road San Antonio, Texas 78239 Call 210-239-1600
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What Parts Are Inside An Automatic Transmission?


San Antonio Automatic Transmission Repair Shop Sergeant Clutch Discount Automatic Transmission Repair Shop In San Antonio, Texas 78239 Transaxle Repairs, Transmission Repairs, Transmission Fluid Flush, Transmissions For Sale

FAQs Automatic Transmission, Transmission Problems, Automatic Transaxle, San Antonio Transmission Repair Shop

 

The predominant form of an automatic transmission is hydraulically operated using a fluid coupling or torque converter, and a set of planetary gear sets to provide a range of gear ratios.

A hydraulic automatic transmission consists of the following parts:

The torque converter: A type of fluid coupling, hydraulically connecting the engine to the automatic transmission. It takes the place of a mechanical clutch, allowing the automatic transmission to stay 'in gear' and the engine to remain running while the vehicle is stationary, without stalling. A torque converter differs from a fluid coupling, in that it provides a variable amount of torque multiplication at low engine speeds, increasing "breakaway" acceleration. This is accomplished with a third member in the "coupling assembly" known as the stator, and by altering the shapes of the vanes inside the coupling in such a way as to curve the fluid's path into the stator. The stator captures the kinetic energy of the transmission fluid, in effect using the leftover force of it to enhance torque multiplication.

The Pump: Not to be confused with the impeller inside the torque converter, is typically a gear pump mounted between the torque converter and the planetary gear set. It draws transmission fluid from a sump and pressurizes it, which is needed for automatic transmission components to operate. The input for the pump is connected to the torque converter housing, which in turn is bolted to the engine's flywheel, so the transmission pump provides pressure whenever the engine is running and there is enough transmission fluid.

The Planetary Gear Set: A compound epicyclic planetary gear set, whose bands and clutches are actuated by hydraulic servos controlled by the valve body, providing two or more gear ratios.

The Clutches and Bands: To effect gear changes, one of two types of clutches or bands are used to hold a particular member of the planetary gear set motionless, while allowing another member to rotate, thereby transmitting torque and producing gear reductions or overdrive ratios. These clutches are actuated by the valve body, their sequence controlled by the automatic transmission's internal programming. Principally, a type of device known as a sprag or roller clutch is used for routine upshifts / downshifts. Operating much as a ratchet, it transmits torque only in one direction, free-wheeling or "overrunning" in the other. The advantage of this type of clutch is that it eliminates the sensitivity of timing a simultaneous clutch release/apply on two planetaries, simply "taking up" the drivetrain load when actuated, and releasing automatically when the next gear's sprag clutch assumes the torque transfer. The bands come into play for manually selected gears, such as low range or reverse, and operate on the planetary drum's circumference. Bands are not applied when drive/overdrive range is selected, the torque being transmitted by the sprag clutches instead. Bands are used for braking; the GM Turbo-Hydramatics incorporated this.

The Valve Body: A hydraulic control center that receives pressurized fluid from the main pump operated by the fluid coupling/torque converter. The pressure coming from this pump is regulated and used to run a network of spring-loaded valves, check balls and servo pistons. The valves use the pump pressure and the pressure from a centrifugal governor on the output side as well as hydraulic signals from the range selector valves and the throttle valve or modulator to control which ratio is selected on the gear set as the vehicle and engine change speed, the difference between the pressures changes, causing different sets of valves to open and close. The hydraulic pressure controlled by these valves drives the various clutch and brake band actuators, thereby controlling the operation of the planetary gear set to select the optimum gear ratio for the current operating conditions. However, in many modern automatic transmissions, the valves are controlled by electro-mechanical servos which are controlled by the electronic engine control unit (ECU) or a separate transmission control unit (TCU).

The Hydraulic & Lubricating Oil: Automatic transmission fluid (ATF), this component of the automatic transmission provides lubrication, corrosion prevention, and a hydraulic medium to convey mechanical power for the operation of the transmission. Primarily made from refined petroleum, and processed to provide properties that promote smooth power transmission and increase service life, the ATF is one of the few parts of the automatic transmission that needs routine service as the vehicle ages.

The multitude of parts, along with the complex design of the valve body, originally made hydraulic automatic transmissions much more complicated and expensive to build and repair than manual transmissions. In most cars except US family, luxury, sport-utility vehicle, and minivan models they have usually been extra-cost options for this reason. Mass manufacturing and decades of improvement have reduced this cost gap.

 

San Antonio Automatic Transmission Repair Shop Sergeant Clutch Discount Automatic Transmission Repair Shop In San Antonio, Texas 78239 Transaxle Repairs, Transmission Repairs, Transmissions For Sale

 

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Sergeant Clutch Discount Automatic Transmission Repair Shop In San Antonio, Texas 78239 Free Transmission Performance Check, Rebuilt Transmissions, Used Transmissions, New Transmissions, Transmissions For Sale


San Antonio Transmission Expert Sergeant Clutch Discount Transmission Repair Shop In San Antonio, Texas 78239

Sergeant Clutch Discount Automatic Transmission Repair Shop

6557 Walzem Road

(Corner of New World / Yellow & Black Shop)

San Antonio, Texas 78239

Call 24 Hours 210-239-1600


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San Antonio Automatic Transmission Repair Shop Sergeant Clutch Discount Automatic Transmission Repair Shop In San Antonio, Texas 78239 Transaxle Repairs, Transmissions For Sale, Rebuilt Transmissions, Used Transmissions, New Transmissions

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